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Russian passport (in Russian, Заграничный паспорт гражданина Росссийской Федерациии, transl. Foreign passport of a citizen of the Russian Federation) is a document issued by the Ministry of Internal Affairs to Russian citizens for international travel. This external Russian passport is different from the internal Russian passport, which is a mandatory identity document for travel and identification within Russia. Russian citizens must use their Russian passports when leaving or entering Russia, unless traveling to/from a country where the internal Russian ID is recognized as a valid travel document.
In addition to regular passports, there are two types of special passports for travel abroad: diplomatic passports and service passports (issued to government employees abroad on official business).
Foreigners coming to Russia faced various restrictions during the tsarist period; border magistrates could allow foreigners to pass within the state only with the permission of the higher government. During the Instability era, in order to travel within the country, so-called travel cards (in Russian, проезжие грамоты) were introduced, mainly for police control purposes. Peter I, by the decree of October 30, 1719, declared them mandatory for travel, following the imposition the compulsory military service and the capitation tax. In 1724, in order to avoid the possibility of evading the payment of the poll tax, special rules on peasants’ absences were established.
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To enter the territory of the Russian Federation, citizens of all other countries must obtain a visa. However, in some cases, it is not necessary to obtain a visa. If a citizen of another country wants to enter Russian territory, he has to know in which cases a visa is required and in which cases it is not. There are two options:
To enter and stay on the territory of the Russian Federation, those who have the nationality of another country must apply and process the documents for a visa. However, there are two exceptional cases, in which a special visa regime applies.
The European Union closed the entire airspace of its 27 countries to Russian aircraft on Sunday, following a steady stream of airspace closure announcements by member countries over the weekend.
The zone was expanded from 100 to 200 nautical miles from the Ukrainian border with Russia. EASA argues that the expanded zone now considers the “risk posed by the threat of missile launches to and from Ukraine.”
“We have guests traveling in late March and early April to Poland, but that is more than a month away. It’s impossible to say now how it will evolve. We are basically in wait-and-see mode,” Kozlowski said by email.
Tourists with short-term plans to visit Poland are advised to book accommodation in advance, “as some of the hotel infrastructure may be earmarked for those in need.”
“IATA is helping to facilitate the relevant and timely exchange of information with airlines from government and non-government sources to support airlines in planning their operations around the airspace closures in Ukraine and parts of Russia.”
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Actually it is always the same standard document, which consists of 2 parts: a “voucher of services”=”voucher” (in English or Russian) plus a “confirmation of reception of foreign tourist”=”confirmation of accommodation booking” =”podtverzhdenie” (in Russian). This document is issued by a Russian travel agency authorized by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to issue it or a hotel entitled to do so. In most cases this document is arranged when you book your accommodation in Russia (but it is not automatic, you have to do it specially), i.e. when booking any type of accommodation, do not forget to ask about it (ask for “visa support”) before booking. There are also travel or visa agencies that manage it as an additional service. They provide a copy by fax or in PDF format. The visa will be issued exactly for the dates of stay indicated in the letter of invitation. Normally it is not required to present a reservation of air or train tickets to apply for the visa (you can read all the requirements on their website). The visa will be affixed to a page of your passport.