HISTORY : The Voyages of Exploration : 5th Grade (10-11 years old)
1Whoever knew nothing beforehand about such a subject, and yet would set out to find out what it refers to, would begin with a very general conceptual and lexical reflection: would it be to speak of travelers on the one hand, and naturalists on the other, or of travelers who had left observations on natural realities? Or would it be more specifically to evoke the subclass of travelers who were at the same time naturalists or who pretended to act and/or acted as such?
2Then, a first simple question that could be answered in more or less general terms would be to know who should be designated as travelers. Then, among them, and in particular for a more recent period, let us say from the 18th century onwards (Pimentel: 47), who were the naturalists, where they were, what they were interested in and what consequences their activities may have had in the field of knowledge and also in the development of the American societies that were the objects of their observations. This impact may have consisted in helping (directly or indirectly) to raise awareness of the existence of a past, of a heritage, of a culture that deserves to be integrated into the national heritage and general knowledge. It may also have contributed to the emergence of projects and institutions dedicated to discovering and protecting this past and this heritage. And most certainly, it served for the prestige and development of the nations from which the naturalist travelers came (Kury 2001: 147 ff.).
The voyages of Christopher Columbus: summary
The remaining theories of pre-Columbian contacts are highly speculative, and lack scientific consensus. There has been speculation about a possible African origin of the Olmec people, a hypothesis of racist origin based on the supposed “negroid” features of some Olmec sculptures, and later embraced by certain Afrocentrist currents.  Genetic evidence has shown that Olmec populations are not related to African populations, and the supposed anthropological evidence has been described as based on “superficial judgments and erroneous conclusions. “ There has also been speculation of pre-Columbian contacts by Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Phoenician, Egyptian, Roman, Celtic, Jewish, Arab  navigators or explorers, and African travelers from the Mali empire. None of these hypotheses has a scientific consensus, and they are usually considered as pseudo-archaeology and pseudo-history.
Traveling without vaccinations: These countries eliminated health requirements
The European Union announced in 2018 that it created the European Travel Information and Authorization System, ETIAS (or ETIAS for short), which will require “a pre-travel assessment of security and migration risks for travelers benefiting from visa-free access to the Schengen area.”
European Commission First Vice President Frans Timmermans during a press conference on progress towards a European Security Union and the proposal for a European Travel Information and Authorization System (ETIAS) at the European Commission in Brussels, Nov. 16, 2016. (Credit: EMMANUEL DUNAND/AFP via Getty Images)
The European Commission clarifies that citizens of countries that do not need a visa to enter the Schengen area will still not need one. What changes is that travelers will have to process the ETIAS permit before their trip.
To obtain this document you will not have to go to a consulate, no biometric data or information will be taken from you as is collected during the visa process, says the European Commission. On the contrary, while visas are processed in a matter of days or even months, ETIAS “only takes a few minutes” to process online.
Which countries can I travel to without vaccination in 2022? – Mundukos
Because it is the electronic system in which you apply for electronic authorization and receive an affirmative or negative answer If you do not apply for ESTA, there is no possibility to travel to the USA using the Visa Waiver Program.
It should be a responsible attitude in terms of fully complying with the period of stay: no more than 90 days each time and for the exclusively authorized reasons: tourism, business and transit. In the event that these conditions are not met, Chile’s stability in the Visa Waiver Program will be harmed.