Vikings in America pdf
The study examined wooden artifacts from a previously undated Viking settlement in Newfoundland, Canada, which provide the earliest known record of humans crossing the Atlantic to reach the Americas.
When the Vikings arrived at L’Anse aux Meadows, they cut trees with metal blades that were not made by the indigenous people living in the area at the time. The pieces of wood left in the settlement came from three different trees.
“The clear increase in carbon-14 production that occurred between 992 and 993 has been detected in tree ring archives around the world,” says Michael Dee, lead author of the study and associate professor of Isotopic Chronology at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands.
This date suggests that this is the earliest known presence of Europeans on the continent before Christopher Columbus, as well as the earliest evidence of all human migration and exploration that the Atlantic had been crossed, Dee said.
When the Vikings arrived
“Before the Vikings, did other peoples cross the Atlantic to reach the New World? The dry answer is that they might have done so, but at least so far the evidence does not exist,” explains medievalist F. Donald Logan in his book “The Vikings in History” (CFE), while historian Manuel Velasco states the following in “A Brief History of the Vikings” (Nowtilus): “As much as it has been questioned, the arrival in Vinland (as the Vikings called the territory discovered in America) is not very extraordinary. Their ships were the great engineering feat of their time. If they got as far as Iceland by crossing the entire Atlantic, how could they not get from Greenland to the northeast of present-day Canada?”
“The king talked about yet another island that had been discovered by many in that ocean. It is called Vinland because there in that country grow wild vines that produce excellent wine. There the plants that grow by themselves abound. I have learned this not from fantastic accounts but from reliable Danish reports.”
Vikings arrived in South America
The colonization of North America by the Vikings is well documented archaeologically and historically, and has been described in the Scandinavian literary tradition, in works such as the Saga of Erik the Red and the Grœnlending Saga. It has been described in the Scandinavian literary tradition, in works such as the Saga of Erik the Red and the Grœnlendinga Saga. A colony was established in Greenland in the late 10th century and lasted until the mid-15th century. The remains of the Scandinavian colony of L’Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland (Canada) were discovered in 1961 by the explorers Helge and Anne Ingstad.4 The colonization of Newfoundland is often associated with Vinland, a country mentioned in the Icelandic sagas. These documents recount the epic of the Viking settlers led by Leif Eriksson. On the other hand, some finds on Baffin Island suggest a Norse presence in that region after the abandonment of L’Anse aux Meadows, although it has also been proposed that this material evidence could correspond to the Dorset culture.
There are few sources describing the contact between the Native Americans and the Norse settlers, only the one between the Thule, who were called Skræling, and the Norse between the 12th or 13th centuries. The Vinland sagas, written centuries later, describe trade and conflict with the indigenous peoples. Archaeological evidence for contact in Greenland is limited, but seems to indicate that the Norwegians did not substantially affect indigenous adaptations, technologies or culture.
Long before Christopher Columbus crossed the Atlantic, eight half-timbered, sod-covered buildings stood on a terrace above a peat bog and stream on the northern tip of the Canadian island of Newfoundland, at the settlement of L’Anse aux Meadows. However, until now, it was unclear when the Vikings traveled to settle at the historic site.
The Vikings traveled great distances; westward, they established settlements in Iceland, Greenland and, finally, a base at L’Anse aux Meadows (photo) on the island of Newfoundland, Canada.
“The increase in radiocarbon production that occurred between 992 and 993 has been detected in tree-ring records from around the world,” says Michael Dee, director of the research.