In 1493, the first expedition captained by Christopher Columbus returned to the Iberian Peninsula, announcing the discovery of new islands towards the Indies. Columbus was received by his sponsors, the kings of Castile and Aragon, who immediately ordered him to make a new voyage to continue exploring the territory and establish a colony in the Indies. The Catholic Monarchs financed the Admiral’s new voyage, interested in expanding the influence of the Crown beyond the seas, obtaining new trade routes outside the influence of Portugal and obtaining new sources of income, such as spices and gold. On his first voyage of colonization, Columbus did not find spices or anything that could be extracted from voyages to India, but he still believed that he had reached Asia using a route that had never been used before.
Apart from the sources of gold he could obtain, Columbus had all sorts of surveys of the New World, agreed upon prior to the voyage in the Capitulaciones de Santa Fe. On the basis of this text, Columbus was ruler of all the territories he discovered with the title of viceroy and admiral of the Ocean Sea and was entitled to receive at least a tenth of the riches of the enterprises he undertook.
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The close relationship between the Jesuit Company and the spreading of the presence of Santo Tomás as a pilgrim in America, has led us to analyze the way that Montoya treats this subject. In” Conquistadors Espiritual” we see how the narrator stops the story about the evangelization tasks to focus on Santo Tomás’ pilgrimage through Peru, Brazil and Paraguay. Also Guamán Poma de Ayala refers to the same tradition with such characteristics that are not substantially different to Montoya. For that reason both writers may be using rhetorically the picture of Santo Tomás for vindication purposes.
Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala is the other author we will deal with. Also Peruvian and contemporary of the Jesuit, he constitutes a very interesting counterpoint for the perspective with which he approaches the description of the saint and from the objectives that led him to include him in his work. Primer Nueva Corónica y Buen Gobierno is a complex text that, as is the case with Montoya’s, cannot be catalogued only as a chronicle. Through Nueva Corónica, Guamán Poma has left testimony of the complex multicultural life of the colony and shares with Montoya’s text a strong plea in defense of the aborigines. In his pages we can also observe a direct and crude denunciation of the political, administrative and religious classes (we must say that the Jesuit order is an exception in Guamán Poma’s concept of them20). The presence of the Apostle in his work is found in the chapter entitled Miracle of God and is found on pages 86 to 8921.
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4. Francisco de Miranda (1750-1816), precursor of Latin American independence, was a general of the French Army, fought in the battle of Valmy and his name is engraved on the Arc de Triomphe as a hero of the French Revolution.
5. France is the first country to recognize the independence of Uruguay in 1825. At the end of the XIX century, almost a third part of the population of Uruguay was French or of French origin. The French represented 40 % of the Montevideans in 1850 and, at present, 15 % of the Uruguayans are of French origin.
10. Latin America saw the birth of several renowned French writers. Isidore Ducasse, known as Count de Lautréamont, Jules Laforgue and Jules Supervielle were born in Montevideo, capital of Uruguay, while Joseph Kessel was born in Buenos Aires.
11. The friendship of Magdalena Frida Carmen Kahlo Calderón, Frida Kahlo, with the French poet and writer André Breton, whom she met in 1938 in Mexico when he was sent by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, allowed her to cross the Atlantic, coinciding with the great exhibition on Mexico at the Renou et Pierre Colle gallery.
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Tordesillas. But it was not so and the Portuguese navigator missed the unexpected dimension of the immense Pacific, one of the most difficult and dramatic moments of the voyage due to the scarcity of food and the almost
The Longest Voyage’, opened in Seville, Antonio Fernandez, underlined that great achievement of making known the magnitude of the Pacific and its connection with the Atlantic through the strait discovered by the Portuguese. Antonio maintains that with
Magellan and Elcano went from an imaginable world to an explained world, since it was already known that the Earth was round but no one had verified it and, above all, its real dimensions were unknown. “It was the culmination of the great voyages and discoveries and it meant the transformation of the world and the beginning of the
Cape Verde. For this he chose to sail the Indian Ocean without approaching the coast and without stopping – 6 months – for supplies, opening a route that had never been done offshore, as the Portuguese had always reached Asia along the African coast.