European travel to america

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Indice

The remaining theories of pre-Columbian contacts are highly speculative, and lack scientific consensus.[29][30] There has been speculation about a possible African origin of the Olmec people,[31][32] a hypothesis of racist origin[33][34] based on the supposed “negroid” features of some Olmec sculptures,[33] and later embraced by certain Afrocentrist currents. [35] Genetic evidence has shown that Olmec populations are not related to African populations,[36] and the supposed anthropological evidence has been described as based on “superficial judgments and erroneous conclusions. “[37] There has also been speculation of pre-Columbian contacts by Chinese,[38][39] Japanese,[40][41] Indian,[42] Phoenician,[43] Egyptian,[44] Roman,[45] Celtic,[46] Jewish,[47] Arab [48][49] navigators or explorers,[50] and African travelers from the Mali empire. None of these hypotheses has a scientific consensus, and they are usually considered as pseudo-archaeology and pseudo-history.[29][30]

Causes of the discovery of America

The remaining theories of pre-Columbian contacts are highly speculative, and lack scientific consensus.[29][30] There has been speculation about a possible African origin of the Olmec people,[31][32] a hypothesis of racist origin[33][34] based on the supposed “negroid” features of some Olmec sculptures,[33] and later embraced by certain Afrocentrist currents. [35] Genetic evidence has shown that Olmec populations are not related to African populations,[36] and the supposed anthropological evidence has been described as based on “superficial judgments and erroneous conclusions. “[37] There has also been speculation of pre-Columbian contacts by Chinese,[38][39] Japanese,[40][41] Indian,[42] Phoenician,[43] Egyptian,[44] Roman,[45] Celtic,[46] Jewish,[47] Arab [48][49] navigators or explorers,[50] and African travelers from the Mali empire. None of these hypotheses has a scientific consensus, and they are usually considered as pseudo-archaeology and pseudo-history.[29][30]

The 4 voyages of Columbus

1Those who know nothing beforehand about such a subject, and nevertheless set out to find out what it refers to, would begin with a very general conceptual and lexical reflection: would it be a question of speaking of travelers on the one hand, and naturalists on the other, or of travelers who had left observations on natural realities? Or would it be more specifically a question of evoking the subclass of travelers who were at the same time naturalists or who pretended to act and/or acted as such?

2Then, a first simple question that could be answered in more or less general terms would be to know who should be designated as travelers. Then, among them, and in particular for a more recent period, let us say from the 18th century onwards (Pimentel: 47), who were the naturalists, where they were, what they were interested in and what consequences their activities may have had in the field of knowledge and also in the development of the American societies that were the objects of their observations. This impact may have consisted in helping (directly or indirectly) to raise awareness of the existence of a past, of a heritage, of a culture that deserves to be integrated into the national heritage and general knowledge. It may also have contributed to the emergence of projects and institutions dedicated to discovering and protecting this past and this heritage. And most certainly, it served for the prestige and development of the nations from which the naturalist travelers came (Kury 2001: 147 ff.).

October 12, 1492

His idea was always to try to reach the East through the West and for this he requested, unsuccessfully, the help of John II of Portugal, which had then become the focus of the most active navigations, in the midst of the discoveries and the center of nautical and cosmographic knowledge of his time. The decisive foundation would be Christopher’s knowledge of Toscanelli’s letter to Martins and his correspondence with the Florentine cosmographer. Columbus, a man endowed with an acute intelligence, although self-taught, would prove to be an excellent sailor with knowledge of the winds and currents of the Atlantic.

In addition to being a discoverer, Christopher Columbus was the initiator of American historiography with the Letters he wrote to the Catholic Monarchs and the Diary of his voyages, where, in addition to news, he gave his impressions of the inhabitants and the lands he discovered. Apparently, Columbus died in 1506 in Valladolid, in pursuit of King Ferdinand, without knowing that he had discovered a new continent, since he always believed he had reached the mythical Cathay (China) and Cipango (Japan) described by Marco Polo in his marvelous journey of the 13th century, a book of which Christopher was a fervent admirer.

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